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Unknown particles and structures in the blood
| By Dr Erik O. H. Enby,
MD, Göteborg 1998.
Two cases of typical ALS symptomatology – amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis – are described. The diagnoses are made at the “Clinic
of Neurology”, at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
Unknown – earlier not described particles and structures occur
in the blood of ALS-patients and they seem to vary in appearance and
amount in phase with the look, character and intensity of the development
of the symptoms.
The blood of the patients has been examined microscopically in ordinary
lightfield with “Nomarski’s interference contrast method”.
The documentation is made by video recording. Pictures have been digitalized
from the video with clarifying diagrams added. The findings confirm
Dr. Enby’s previously established wound theory and it might
contribute towards explaining an aspect of the genesis to the ALS
Patient A is a 48 years old man, who in June 1991 started with numbness
in his hands and stomach pain. Then a weakness in his arms developed,
especially on the left side, and after that general weakness and lack
of ability to walk but short distances. Patient A lost weight fast
and went from 80 to 64 kilos. Initially he was examined at the medical
clinic of the Linköping Hospital and later at the clinic of neurology
of the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. Patient A by
then had developed muscle atrophy in general and showed small spasms
in all the musculation except in the face muscles. All reflexes were
increased and Babinski’s sign existed on the left side. Gradually
the condition was considered an amyotrophic syndrome with elements
of both peripheral and central motoneuron damages on different levels.
All laboratory examinations were essentially without remarks according
to actual case reports from Lidköping and at the clinic of neurology
The patient came to my clinic in November 1992 in order to get some
information about an alternative medical treatment that might stop
the disease process. The patient became increasingly paralysed and
finally he passed away in February 1993.
Patient B showed a progressive muscle atrophy in arms and legs with
muscle spasms as a very obvious symptom, though the symptom picture
increased more slowly than with patient A. A severe disturbance of
the speech indicated that there were damages even higher up in the
spinal cord, in the medulla oblongata, which wasn’t the case
with patient A.
Microscopy was made with ordinary lightfield 100 times enlarged and
with Nomarski’s interference contrast method 1.200 times enlarged.
The microscopy equipment consisted of a Leitz’ laboratory microscope
equipped with a 100 W halogen lamp, modified UK condenser for darkfield,
lightfield, phase-contrast and interference contrast, Plan-Fluotar
objective and binocular photo tube FSA. Documentation has been made
with Leitz’ fully automatic microscope camera Vario-Orthomat.
Video recording has been made with Panasonic CCTV camera, model WV-CD20/G.
A drop of blood was obtained from the finger-tip and immediately was
made to flow out to a thin film between sterilized cover- and objective
glasses. In order to make long observation time possible without the
slides drying, the edges were covered with immersion oil. The blood
outflow was first microscoped in full in an ordinary lightfield 100
times enlarged in order to obtain a first fast orientation and then
a more special microscoping of interesting sections with interference
contrast 1.200 times enlarged was made.
Among the blood cells a diffuse spread of variously shaped immobile
particles alien to blood was found and they seemed to bud off from
each other and grow in size, but never to grow bigger than a red blood
cell (Figure 1 and Illustration
1). In addition a large amount of so-called disc-formed regions
existed(1). These were so big that they couldn’t
be photographically documented in full (Figure
2 and Illustration 2).
A sector of a region like that is shown in Figure
2 and Illustration 3.
The peripheral corona zone turned out to contain myriads of oscillating
particles, a bit smaller than those spread among the red blood cells
Due to these findings a blood culture was made that was checked by
the Department of Microbiology at Sahlgrenska University Hospital
in Gothenburg. It didn’t show any growth of bacteria and according
to this examination there was no infection.
With patient B the above picture also was found. Moreover, in the
blood outflow there were up to 60 µm long and 4-6 µm thick
worm-like structures, that showed movements of their own when moving
around among the blood cells in a precise direction (Figure
3). On observation in the interference contrast they were clearly
visible. At a changeover to ordinary lightfield microscopy they were
almost impossible to see. The particle could notice the red blood
cells that were in its way and avoided them by getting out of their
way. In both ends it had a distinct ending, sometimes slightly spherically
formed. In a demonstration at the Institute of Microbiology at the
University of Gothenburg, one of the research assistants exclaimed:
a snake! Professor Hans Wigzell ocularly judged the item as a filarie,
that is a round worm. Moreover, compared with the red blood cells,
there were also several other variously formed particles, though with
a length that only exceeded the diameter of the red blood cells(7µm)
with maximum the double length (Figure
The disc-formed regions(1) visible in the blood outflow
between cover and objective glasses in the blood, should be equalled
by spherical structures. The particles in the corona zone will form
a thin layer in the periphery of these structures (Illustration
4) and limit their content against the surrounding and also spread
out among the surrounding blood cells(1), where they
seem to increase by budding and grow in size (Figure
1, illustration 1, illustration
3 and illustration 4).
It’s possible that the contents in these postulated spherical
structures – in the blood not yet observed in their natural
condition – are made of small, circulating pus drops –
micro-abscesses. The particles in their periphery could form one of
the developing stages of a vegetation in the soma and in these peripheries
they form the front of the structures against the surrounding substance
and together they may be supposed to form the growth zones of the
structures – the growing centres of the micro-abscesses.
If this developing stage of the postulated growth in the soma, also
can use some of the tissue areas in the central nervous system as
substratum, it will also be infiltrated by particles and make room
for stationary micro-abscesses with multiple tissue destruction as
a result. By autopsy of patients with symptom pictures, that indicate
a widespread disturbance in the motoneuron system, a widespread degeneration
of equivalent tissue areas is found. A continuously new formation
and development of small abscesses in these areas and later reabsorption
of the abscess contents and replacement of equivalent tissue destruction
with scar tissue might lead to this degeneration, that certainly will
continue as long as suitable substratum is available.
For easily explained reasons we only know the final result of the
background destruction process in tissue areas equivalent to the motoneuron
symptom complex and other similar symptom complexes originating from
different levels of the CNS. Other, in principle, similar destruction
processes do exist in areas, that easily can be inspected, for example,
in the skin, where for example a widespread acne in perpetual new
formation and healing cause multiple small scar formations, that together
may lead to a widespread degeneration of the skin tissue. One can
assert that healing is taking place, but with defect-, function drop.
Micro-abscess formation with tissue destruction and healing with scar
formation will be a type of destruction process, that will lead to
degenerative changes and function loss, in any of the tissue areas
of the soma, if they can form substratum for any growth process.
According to this theory, through microscoping the blood from our
patients, we should be able to spot signs, that destruction in certain
parts of the soma is probably about to happen. The symptomatology
indicates that this is going on in the motor path system in CNS on
A solution to a problem within medicine is almost always incomplete
and therefore this theory is only meant to contribute a plausible
explanation to how the motoneuron disease may come about.
The ALS-syndrome probably also occurs as a result of the tissue destruction
due to other reasons, for example chronic heavy metal influence(2)
or as a part of the symptom picture of conditions like Parkinson’s
or Creutzfeldt Jakobs Disease(3).
The abundantly occurring filarie-like findings with patient B indicate
that also other forms of vegetation exist in the body fluids of patients
with disturbance in the motoric path systems in CNS. Varying extent
of growth-intensity and neurotrophy among these micro-floras might
cause variation in progress and symptomatalogy of the patients. It
can be important to study the particles and their relation to the
cell wall deficient forms among the microorganisms, that hardly will
be cultivated and their tendency to form abscesses and cause destruction
in different parts of the soma. To stop this might mean that several
chronic diseases, including the conditions that have been classified
under the diagnosis motoneuron diseases, will be stopped in their
progress, already just after the end of the period of incubation.
(1). Enby, Erik O. H.
(1997). Blodförändringar hos kroniskt
sjuka samt en teori om totala och partiella sårenheter. (Blood
changes with chronic illness - and a theory about total and partial
wound units). 2000-Talets Vetenskap. Nr 2. s 11-15.
(2). Rehde, Olle & Pleva, Jarv
(1994). Recovery from amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam fillings.
International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine. Nr 4. s 229-236.
(3). Brain, Walter Russell
(1969). Brain’s Clinical Neurology.
(3rd ed rev by R. Bannister). London. Oxford University Press.
Dr. Enby has shown video recording of structures and particles in
described in this paper. The following persons have seen the video:
Hans Wigzell, Professor of Immunology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
Mats Wahlgren, Professor at SMI and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
Annica Dahlström, Professor of Histology, Gothenburg.
Marek SAS Lipecki, Expert of Oncology, Gothenburg.
Lennart Cedgård, Physician, Gothenburg.
P-A Öckerman, Professor of Biochemistry, Lund.
Olle Redhe, Dentist, Falun.
© 1998-2004. Dr Erik Enby. All rights reserved. This article
may only be reproduced in its entirety.
Illustrations: Lisa Örtengren.
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